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This guide seeks to help Infinidat customers who own InfiniGuard systems and who also use IBM Spectrum Protect, get the most out of their investment. It is also intended to help Infinidat field sales teams by providing guidance to enhance the installation and integration of Spectrum Protect with InfiniGuard systems. This guide includes advice and best practices for using InfiniGuard systems with Spectrum Protect.

IBM TSM renamed

  • As of Version 7.1.3, IBM Tivoli® Storage Manager (TSM) is now called Spectrum Protect™. All references to Tivoli Storage Manager or TSM in this Best Practices Guide also refer to Spectrum Protect.
  • On the IBM Web site, some references to this product, and some hyperlinks, may still refer to Tivoli Storage Manager / TSM, until the IBM rebranding effort is completed.

Introduction

How to use this guide

This document assumes that the reader has basic expertise with Spectrum Protect, as well as basic networking and SAN experience. It also assumes that the reader has an InfiniGuard installed in a working Spectrum Protect environment.

This document provides key recommendations and useful information for quickly setting up InfiniGuard with Spectrum Protect. It expands on these recommendations and discusses the features and performance tuning considerations relevant to various storage access methods.

This document is organized according to the various storage target access methods to be employed with Spectrum Protect. The InfiniGuard can appear as a Virtual Tape Library (VTL) storage device over Fibre Channel (FC), or as a Network Attached Storage device (NFS or CIFS). These access methods are discussed in the following order.

  • InfiniGuard VTL
  • InfiniGuard NAS - NFS and/or CIFS

Documentation and reference

The complete InfiniGuard documentation set is available here: https://support.infinidat.com/hc/en-us/categories/115000877369-InfiniGuard

Summary of tuning parameters for IBM Spectrum Protect

For backup administrators who are well versed on IBM Spectrum Protect and InfiniGuard systems, the following table offers a summary of suggested parameters / values. As with any modifications to a system that impacts performance and / or tuning, your results may vary and are not guaranteed.

Parameter, or Option

Setting
CompressionNo
EncryptionNo
DeduplicationNo
TDP MultiplexingNo
Dynamic trackingDisabled (applies to AIX only)
Spectrum Protect Tape Reclamation Trigger50%-90%, depending upon backup load
ReUseDelay0
TXNBYTELIMIT
  • 25600
  • 2097152 for backup direct to tape
Miscellaneous OptionsRecommendations
Server ResourcesMemory Requirements for All Operating Systems:
  • At least 32 GB for heavily used servers. Using 32 GB or more of memory enhances performance of the Spectrum Protect Server database inventory.
  • For multiple instances, each instance requires the memory listed for one server. Multiply the memory for one server by the number of instances planned for the system.
Server Name

The server name is an internal name for Spectrum Protect and is used for operations that involve communication among multiple Spectrum Protect servers. Examples include server-to-server communication and library sharing.

The Server Name is different from the host name. However, the default server name that is suggested is the same as the host name of the system that you are using.

Database NameThe database name is always TSMDB1, for every server instance. This name cannot be changed.

Configuring IBM Spectrum Protect to work with InfiniGuard

IBM Spectrum Protect is based on client/server architecture. A Spectrum Protect domain is a logical group of policies and clients within a Spectrum Protect server. The Spectrum Protect server controls and directs all Spectrum Protect operations. Backup management information is stored or managed by the Spectrum Protect server, including configuration information, parameters for client systems to be backed up, the index of files backed up from those clients, and media volumes where backed-up data is stored. Normally, a client operates under the control of the Spectrum Protect server, according to the policies an administrator establishes.

When a backup occurs, a Spectrum Protect client sends data to the Spectrum Protect server, which directs the data to the appropriate storage pool. The Spectrum Protect server receives metadata information about the files being backed up separately and makes appropriate entries in the Spectrum Protect database.

In traditional Spectrum Protect environments, the primary storage pool is a minimal amount of high performance disk, either direct-attached or SAN-attached to the Spectrum Protect server. Once the amount of data in the primary storage pool reaches a threshold, the data is copied to a secondary storage pool, typically a tape library, for longer term storage.

Note that the InfiniGuard’s storage is shared by all NAS shares and VTLs configured in the system.

Configuring IBM Spectrum Protect with InfiniGuard

A Virtual Tape Library is a data storage virtualization technology used for backup and recovery, in which disk storage is virtualized as tape storage. A VTL presents itself as a tape library with tape drives for use with existing instances of Spectrum Protect. Because VTLs emulate all the SCSI capabilities of tape hardware, VTL usage is not apparent to Spectrum Protect Servers, regardless of the server level or platform.

Virtualizing disk storage as tape allows integration of VTLs with existing Spectrum Protect software and existing backup and recovery processes and policies. The benefits of such virtualization include storage consolidation and faster data restores. Creating a backup image on a virtual tape is no different than creating a backup image on a physical tape; the backup functionality remains unchanged. The VTL is just standing in for a physical tape library as the secondary storage pool for Spectrum Protect.

Robot/Media Changer Device Serialization Considerations

One of the key ways to ensure that SAN-connected physical and virtual tape libraries are detected properly by backup servers is serialization. Serialization provides a unique identifier for each device in a physical or virtual tape library, to automate device association from multiple backup servers. These identifiers, returned by the VTL devices, are separate from the element addresses that define the position of devices in the library. The element address is used by the library’s robot or medium changer to manage the tape drives.

Serialization allows the servers running the data protection application (the media servers) to coordinate tape drive configuration by aligning the device serial number with the device’s element address. This enables Spectrum Protect device discovery to align these two addresses, reducing the potential for improper configuration.

If the device or configuration manager does not serialize the devices listed, DO NOT commit the changes, and be sure to check the VTL’s online state. The InfiniGuard VTL partition must be online for this to function properly. 

Install and Configure Library Device Driver(s) as Required by Spectrum Protect

Always ensure that the latest drivers and firmware have been installed for the tape drives, and for the media changer and HBA. For best performance, drivers should be loaded for the tape drive.

Spectrum Protect provides the device driver for Infinidat InfiniGuard VTL emulations so use the 'for Spectrum Protect' driver for the VTL media changer and non-IBM tape drive emulations. For IBM drive emulation use the IBM drivers specified in the table below.

Beginning with Spectrum Protect Version 6.3, the Spectrum Protect device driver uses persistent reservation to reserve the following physical and emulated tape drives:

  • HP LTO-3
  • HP LTO-4
  • HP LTO-5

A note on persistent reservations

  • AIX displays a message that it needs devices.fcp.changer or devices.scsi Fileset when trying to use a non-IBM device with Spectrum Protect Server running on AIX. The message is generated because the OS is seeing a device, but does not recognize what it is because there is no driver for it loaded into the AIX Kernel.
  • The Spectrum Protect device driver does not load into the AIX Kernel, so you can expect this message for any devices that are being used with Spectrum Protect that the OS does not already have its own driver for. You can safely ignore and bypass this message.
  • When configuring devices on a different SCSI or FC adapter, run cfgmgr with the -l option to restrict it to looking at a single bus, rather than searching the entire system, which it does by default.
    • For example: cfgmgr -l scsi0

InfiniGuard VTL and Tape Drive Emulations and Recommended Drivers

Virtual Library and Tape Drive Emulation, OS and  Drivers

Virtual Library:

VTL emulation/inquiry - Infinidat IBA B4260 DDE (DXi6900)
Windows: IBM Spectrum Protect driver
Linux:        IBM Spectrum Protect driver
AIX:           IBM Spectrum Protect driver
HPUX and Solaris: Not supported by Spectrum Protect Server 8.1.x and later

IBM LTO drives:

IBM LTO emulation - IBM ULTRIUM-TD5
Windows:  Recommend using HP LTO emulation       (Spectrum Protect supports - Windows signed IBMTape driver)
Linux:         Recommend using HP LTO emulation       (Spectrum Protect supports - IBM lin_tape driver)
IBM AIX:    Recommend using HP LTO emulation       (Spectrum Protect supports - IBM Atape driver)
HPUX and Solaris: Not supported by Spectrum Protect Server 8.1.x and later

HP LTO drives:

HP LTO emulation - HP Ultrium 5-SCSI
Windows:  HP LTO  Window signed driver  or  Spectrum Protect driver
Linux:          Spectrum Protect driver
IBM AIX:     Spectrum Protect driver
HPUX and Solaris: Not supported by Spectrum Protect Server 8.1.x and later

Infinidat does not recommend using IBM emulation with Spectrum Protect because of IBM LTO vendor commands.  Append-only mode is one such command and should be disabled by setting Spectrum Protect CHECKTAPEPOS to "No" .   See the CHECKTAPEPOS command note for details:
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSGSG7_7.1.8/srv.reference/r_opt_server_checktapepos.html

Infinidat does not support mixing drive types in a single partition.

Configure the InfiniGuard for VTL

Installing and configuring the InfiniGuard and Spectrum Protect for VTL operation consists of the following steps:

  1. Configure VTLs on InfiniGuard
  2. Configure Spectrum Protect to use VTLs

Configure VTLs on InfiniGuard

The following steps describe how to configure an InfiniGuard with VTLs:

  1. Create a virtual tape library on the InfiniGuard, specifying the emulation type, number of slots, number of tape drives, and their emulation type.
    If desired, multiple VTL’s can be created to service different backup servers.
  2. Create virtual tape cartridges on the InfiniGuard for the VTL, specifying the cartridge type, quantity, and capacity.
  3. Assign the VTL to a client on the SAN to which the InfiniGuard is attached.

In the InfiniGuard Remote Management Console, under the Configuration tab, the VTL page allows you to configure an InfiniGuard to present its storage capacity as VTL partitions that are compatible with Spectrum Protect and other standard backup applications. You may add virtual tape drives and storage slots to VTL partitions to create and work with virtual tape cartridges, then map partitions to hosts.

Partitioning lets you divide the InfiniGuard virtual tape drives and storage elements into separate VTLs, usable by separate host computers. The Partitions page contains a list of assigned tape drives, as well as listing all user-defined VTL partitions that are currently configured on the system. This page also lets you add, edit, and delete partitions.

The Summary page displays the maximum number of VTL partitions, the total number of tape drives, and the number of assigned tape drives. The Summary page also provides a list of configured partitions on the system. Click the link in the Name column to edit a specific partition.

You can use a VTL for any virtual tape library only when the following conditions are true:

  • There is no mixed media involved in the VTL. Only one type and generation of drive and media is emulated in the library.
  • Every server and storage agent with access to the VTL has paths that are defined for all drives in the library.

If either of these conditions is not met, any mount performance advantage from defining a VTL library to the Spectrum Protect server may be reduced or negated.

If you are planning to replicate partitions to another InfiniGuard system, you must ensure that every partition name and barcode number on the system is unique. You CAN NOT have duplicate partition names or barcode numbers on an InfiniGuard system, or on a system receiving a replicated partition.

The Create Media page allows you to create virtual media for a specific partition. Once created, these virtual cartridges are available for backing up data. You can configure the media type, capacity, starting barcode, and initial location on this page.

It is possible to oversubscribe space on the InfiniGuard system. The sum total of capacity for all media could be more than the capacity of the system. Be careful to ensure that this does not happen.

Configure Spectrum Protect to use VTLs

When an InfiniGuard is configured as a VTL, it will present itself to Spectrum Protect as a standard tape library with drives and cartridges. The following steps describe how to configure Spectrum Protect with VTLs:

  1. Scan for devices at the Spectrum Protect server.
    The VTL and its tape drives will be discovered. The VTL will appear as QUANTUM DXi6900(Type) Library (both are valid library emulations).
  2. In the Spectrum Protect Integrated Portal Web site on the media server, go to Storage Devices. Then:
    1. Create a library, specifying the Library Type of the VTL.
    2. Add drives to the library one at a time. 
  3. Label and check in volumes:
    1. Choose whether to automatically label volumes, or to do it manually.
    2. Add volumes by searching for all eligible volumes in regular slots in the library, and accept all defaults in the dialog box. Then, discover volumes.
    3. Create the appropriate Device Class (drive type), and select the library created in step 2.
    4. Create a Storage Pool, specifying the following:
      1. Name - name of the storage pool
      2. Type: Sequential access
      3. Device Class: use device class that was created above
      4. Scratch volume: use maximum value
        Refer to the section on “Sequential Access Storage Pool Volumes” in the IBM Spectrum Protect Administrator’s Guide for more information on creating storage pools of this type.
  4. Activate the policy on the storage pool just created. 
  5. Perform a test backup to verify the configuration.

Best Practices Guide for InfiniGuard VTL

General Installation and Setup Considerations

  • Ensure that all non-existent tape drives are cleared from the ODM database.
  • If installing Spectrum Protect on AIX, ensure that it is acceptable to reboot the AIX server at least one time during implementation.
  • Configure the VTL emulation as Infinidat IBA B4260 DDE (DXi6900)
  • Ensure that a device addressed at LUN0 is present, and that there are NO GAPS in the LUN numbering schema following LUN0.
    • If there is no device at LUN0, device discovery will abort.
    • If there is a gap in the LUN numbering, device discovery will not find devices with LUN numbers beyond the gap.

Virtual Tape Drive Device Description and Recommendation

Infinidat InfiniGuard products support multiple tape drive emulations and allow users to define the capacities of tape cartridges to support the drive type. The drive type selection does not internally impose any throttling of the ingest rate, or any limitations on the virtual cartridge capacity.

Infinidat recommends against using the Windows update function to get the latest tape drive drivers, as it is possible that Windows Update can find unexpected driver matches for a tape drive. These unexpected matches often are not the same as those supplied by the tape drive manufacturer and may introduce unexpected incompatibilities. This can result in a change to the device in the Windows Device Manager.

Device Driver and Firmware Level

Ensure that the latest drivers and firmware have been installed for the tape drive, robotic library, and HBA. Device driver recommendations are noted in the VTL configuration section of this document.

Number of Concurrent Tape Drives in Use

Each InfiniGuard model has a maximum number of virtual tape drives that can be configured. Each model also has a maximum aggregate throughput rate, which will be divided relatively equally between the virtual tape drives in use, assuming there are no server or network bottlenecks. However, this does not prohibit a single tape drive from using all available bandwidth.

Keep in mind that increasing the number of concurrently active virtual tape drives does not increase the aggregate InfiniGuard bandwidth. It could result in a failed backup job, due to a timeout from a bandwidth- starved operation. The individual Spectrum Protect servers typically determine individual tape drive performance.

It is not a good idea to configure the maximum number of virtual tape drives onto a single server and then perform I/O through all of them concurrently. Better performance can be achieved by defining a subset of all the virtual tape drives across multiple Spectrum Protect servers.

Infinidat also recommends that backups be staggered so that only a subset of drives is in use at any time. Staggering backups is recommended IF you would otherwise exceed the recommended maximum number of concurrently active VTDs. During a backup, the data transfer rate is primarily controlled by the server, because the InfiniGuard system does not restrict the ingest data rate. This creates the opportunity for one or more Spectrum Protect servers to burst data at a higher rate, leaving less bandwidth for the remaining virtual tape drives.

The recommended maximum number of concurrently active virtual tape drives for various maximum aggregate bandwidths is:

  • Max VTDs (Virtual Tape Drives) in the system - 512
  • Max number of concurrently active VTDs (it is advised to contact Spectrum Protect regarding possible limitations and other considerations)- 512
  • Max aggregated bandwidth - 9,722 MB/s (35.0 TB/Hr)

Tape Drive LUN Mapping

Infinidat recommends the following:

  • Map the device starting with LUN 0 on each port and DO NOT skip any LUNs.
  • As a best practice, zone the VTL devices and the Spectrum Protect media servers to prevent other servers from taking control of the VTL resources. Single-initiator style zoning is recommended and is a common best practice in Fibre Channel SANs.
  • Additionally, Infinidat recommends using the persistent binding feature in the HBA driver to bind the devices to a specific address. This helps keep devices in the same order after a reboot.
  • Set the WWNN = WWPN for InfiniGuard systems. This allows for binding on the HBA to use either WWNN or WWPN.

Infinidat InfiniGuard VTL devices support “reserve and release” to accommodate sharing drives. This option allows devices to be shared between Spectrum Protect clients with the Storage Agent installed and Spectrum Protect servers, thus creating a pool of drives available to each of those systems. Other SAN architectures assign drives to each system and eliminate this shared function.

For both conditions, it is a good practice to keep the Spectrum Protect server installed on machines separate from other production servers, to eliminate downtime from maintenance activities. Wherever possible, the Spectrum Protect servers should have fast network connections to their source data.

Tape Cartridge Capacity Considerations

Space on a given tape cartridge cannot be reused until after all backup data on that cartridge has expired. The greater the capacity of a cartridge, the longer it will typically take for all data on that cartridge to expire. Expired data continues to take up space on the virtual tape cartridge, as well as in the InfiniGuard, until that cartridge is overwritten, relabeled, or erased.

This means that lower cartridge capacities are more desirable, so that tapes will be returned to the Spectrum Protect scratch pool for reuse and overwritten sooner. INFINIDAT’s general guidance is to specify a smaller virtual tape cartridge capacity, such as 50GB to 100GB, for the reasons mentioned below.

There is virtually no relationship between the configured capacity of a virtual tape cartridge and the tape drive emulation that has been configured for the partition:

  • Backup/restore operations will span the number of tapes required, based on the configured capacity.
  • Vaulting/duplicating operations performed by the backup application will ignore the virtual capacity when writing to another cartridge, whether virtual or physical. Duplication operations are performed on a set of backup data, not on a per-cartridge basis.
  • Infinidat InfiniGuard devices limit the maximum capacity permitted by the tape drive emulation; the minimum is 5GB.

Capacity utilization is tracked in COMPRESSED GB, and data is stored in compressed form. That is, 100GB of data that is 2:1 compressible will be reported as occupying 50GB of virtual tape cartridge space.

Spectrum Protect Trigger Setting and Cartridge Size

Always relabel cartridges that are returned to the scratch pool. As of version 5.5.3, Spectrum Protect provides an automatic way to do this. When you re-label cartridges, you are informing the InfiniGuard that it can reclaim the space occupied by those cartridges. This will minimize the amount of space consumed by backup data on the InfiniGuard. If you do not re-label cartridges, the InfiniGuard will continue to protect old expired data until such time as the cartridges are reused. That will artificially increase the amount of space required by the InfiniGuard and can result in early or unnecessary capacity upgrade costs.

Setting the Spectrum Protect Tape Reclamation Trigger is a balancing act. If set too low, more performance load is induced on the InfiniGuard, due to increased space reclamation activity. If set too high, an excess of capacity is occupied on the InfiniGuard.

Start with the Spectrum Protect Tape Reclamation Trigger at 50% to balance these factors. In addition, keep in mind that:

  • Spectrum Protect environments with a very low backup load can have the trigger set lower, inducing more load on the InfiniGuard to reduce capacity demand.
  • Spectrum Protect environments with a very high backup load might need a higher trigger value, sacrificing capacity to make more “I/O budget” available, to achieve a better backup window.

Unless there are overwhelming reasons not to, use a small virtual cartridge size. 100 GB is recommended.

  • A reason to use a larger cartridge size: Limitations on the number of cartridges per VTL. (i.e. the end user wants a single VTL to manage all backup data).
  • A reason to use a smaller cartridge: This minimizes the amount of TTR I/O for files that span multiple cartridges. For example:
    • Assume that a file spans 3 cartridges, occupying part of A, all of B, and part of C. If that file does not expire, but data on A and C expires and triggers TTR, only A and C will be rewritten, and B will be left as-is. This reduces TTR load.
    • If that file had been written to one super-size cartridge, all that data would have been transcribed again and again.
  • All other multi-protocol combinations work well together
  • Reduced VTL traffic may lessen the frequency of NFS timeouts

Considerations for the Handling of Expired Media within Spectrum Protect

When a tape is expired by Spectrum Protect, this is not directly communicated to the InfiniGuard. The result is that a tape may be displayed as empty or SCRATCH to the user by the Spectrum Protect console, but the same tape will show on the InfiniGuard GUI as containing data. This indicates that the data on the expired tape is still using space on the InfiniGuard. 

To reclaim this space, Infinidat recommends that you label the media when Spectrum Protect expires the tape cartridge. Any data after the label is truncated on the virtual cartridge (similar to the data after the label being no longer accessible on a physical cartridge.) Space reclamation will then occur when initiated by the Scheduler. Additional information about the space reclamation process can be found in the InfiniGuard user manual. 

In version 5.5.2 and later, Spectrum Protect can re-label volumes automatically, using the RELABELSCRATCH parameter. (Also available in TSM 5.5.1.0 with a patch - see APAR IC58862). 

Example of using RELABELSCRATCH: 

CLI %> define library <libName> libtype=scsi relabelscratch=yes

For more detail, see the RELABELSCRATCH Information section in Appendix A: Additional Spectrum Protect Information.

Reclamation

Spectrum Protect Reclamation 

Backups and archives in Spectrum Protect are policy-based. These policies govern: 

  • Which files on a server will be backed up or archived 
  • To which media the files will be backed up or archived 
  • How many versions of various files will be retained 
  • How long the versions will be retained 

Because Spectrum Protect is policy-based, backup objects, or versions, are expired, rather than the entire backup or individual piece of media. As backup objects on a tape cartridge expire, the cartridge becomes more and more logically empty. Eventually, the amount of free space remaining on the tape drops below a predefined threshold, and space needs to be reclaimed. The Spectrum Protect reclamation process mounts the tape to be reclaimed, mounts another tape with free space, and copies all the remaining valid data from the source cartridge to the destination cartridge. The source cartridge is now empty and can be reused as a scratch tape. 

This Spectrum Protect reclamation process occurs automatically and is usually scheduled to occur once per day. Reclamation ensures that data is stored efficiently, and that the media is optimized for restoration. If active data pools are used, reclamation must run regularly to remove inactive versions from the active data pool. A version becomes inactive whenever a new version of that object is received from the client. 

InfiniGuard Reclamation 

There is another process, completely internal to the InfiniGuard system, known as “reclamation”. This InfiniGuard process has nothing to do with “Spectrum Protect reclamation.” InfiniGuard reclamation is part of the internal space management process that occurs on InfiniGuard systems. InfiniGuard space reclamation only runs when invoked by schedule.

Space reclamation performs two primary functions: 

  • Reconciliation: The list of expired data is processed to reduce the reference count for the unique data blocks that they referenced. 
  • Deletion: All unique data blocks that have zero reference counts are deleted from the deduplication pool. 

Additional Best Practice Considerations

Several operational considerations are common to both access methods (VTL and NAS). See the Common Operational Considerations for Spectrum Protect section for more information on Deduplication, Encryption, Compression, Backup Streams and Replication.

Configuring Spectrum Protect with InfiniGuard NAS 


A Network Attached Storage (NAS) unit is essentially a self-contained computer connected to an Ethernet network, with the sole purpose of supplying data storage services to other devices on the network. Several InfiniGuard models can present themselves as a NAS appliance for backup purposes. Before you can use an InfiniGuard system as a NAS appliance, you must first configure a NAS share on the InfiniGuard Spectrum Protect can use as backup-to-disk targets.

An InfiniGuard system can serve as a NAS backup system where the following protocols are supported:

  • CIFS Protocol -The CIFS (Common Internet File System) protocol defines a standard for remote file access using many computers at a time. This protocol allows users with different platforms to share files without installing additional software. This protocol is used with Windows networks.
  • NFS Protocol - The NFS (Network File System) protocol was originally designed by Sun Microsystems and allows all network users to access shared files stored on computers of different types. NFS provides access to shared files through an interface called the Virtual File System (VFS) that runs on top of TCP/IP. Users can manipulate shared files as if they were stored locally on the user's own hard disk. With NFS, computers connected to a network operate as clients while accessing remote files, and as servers when providing remote users access to local shared files. This protocol is used with UNIX/Linux networks. 

NAS Device Path Considerations

Network segmentation is the process of splitting a single network into several sub-networks or segments. The advantages of a segmented network are improved performance and security. Performance is improved because there are fewer hosts on the segmented network, which in turn minimizes local traffic. Security is improved because the data traffic is contained on this segment and is not visible to the outside network. 

If you are using network segmentation and Microsoft’s Automated Deployment Services (ADS), you must use the InfiniGuard data segment IP information for ADS management, NOT the InfiniGuard management segment. ADS uses the Server Message Block (SMB) data protocol to manage the NAS shares on your system, which requires that the management traffic use the data segment.  

InfiniGuard systems allow you to configure your network for separate segment types. The three primary segments are defined by the type of network traffic that can be used on that segment. The three types of network traffic are: 

  • Replication traffic - This segment is used exclusively for replication data movement.
  • Management traffic - This segment is used exclusively for remote management (Web page access).
  • Data traffic - This segment is used exclusively for NAS data movement.  

Each network segment has its own network interface (IP address, network mask, and default gateway). In this way, the segment is separated from other network segment traffic.

Regardless of which type of bonding is used on the InfiniGuard (Round Robin or LACP), the ports on the Ethernet switch that the InfiniGuard are connected to must be in a matching group type as the bond on the InfiniGuard.  

Installing and configuring the InfiniGuard and Spectrum Protect for NAS operation consists of the following major steps, which are covered immediately below.

  • Configure the InfiniGuard for NAS
  • Configure NAS backup with Spectrum Protect

Configure the InfiniGuard for NAS

The InfiniGuard system allows you to configure it to present its storage capacity as NAS shares that are compatible with Spectrum Protect. You can create NAS shares for use with Windows or Linux networks. You can also join the InfiniGuard to a Windows domain or workgroup, and manage users.

In the InfiniGuard Remote Management Console GUI the Configuration page allows you to configure many of the features of the InfiniGuard, including storage presentation

Configuring the InfiniGuard for NAS lets you choose which network protocol will be used as the transport method for backing up data from client machines to the Spectrum Protect media server. CIFS (Windows) and NFS (UNIX/Linux) are available on the NAS > Summary tab. After NAS Shares have been configured on the InfiniGuard, Spectrum Protect can be configured to use these shares as storage resources.

Configure NAS Backups with Spectrum Protect

In this configuration, we are using the NAS share(s) on the InfiniGuard as the primary storage pool. With the available capacity of the InfiniGuard, and using deduplication, you can create a configuration where data is copied to tape, as a secondary storage pool, only for offsite long-term storage. 

In the simplest LAN backup-to-disk configuration, there is a single Spectrum Protect client, a backup server, and InfiniGuard’s storage device, all connected via an Ethernet LAN. 

Setting up this environment involves the following steps:

  1. Mount (or map) the share on the Spectrum Protect server: 
    1. Create a mount point for the NFS share to be used by Spectrum Protect, and mount it, using the commands for your particular operating system. 
    2. Map the CIFS share to a drive in Windows Explorer.
  2. Using Spectrum Protect’s Integrated Solutions Console, select Storage Devices
  3. Create a device class, specifying the following properties: 
    1. Device type: FILE
    2. Name: <name of device class> 
    3. Path: /<mount point> 
    4. Mount limit: <use default value> 
      Note: Ensure that the mount limit is set to a high enough value to support all concurrent sessions if the default is not sufficient. 
    5. Maximum volume capacity: <desired size of volume you wish to use>  
  4. Create a storage pool, specifying the following: 
    1. Name: <name of storage pool> 
    2. Type: Sequential access 
    3. Device class: <use device class created in step 3> 
    4. Scratch volume: 1

Refer to the section on “Sequential Access Storage Pool Volumes” in the IBM Spectrum Protect Administrator’s Guide for more information on creating storage pools of this type. 

After you have configured the storage pool:

  1. Activate the policy on the storage pool that was just created.
  2. Perform a test backup to verify the configuration.

During a backup operation, the NFS or CIFS share on the InfiniGuard designated as the storage pool volume receives the backup objects directly from the client/server. 

Best Practices Guide with InfiniGuard NAS

Number of Shares Considerations

Each InfiniGuard system can support multiple NAS shares simultaneously, with a maximum of 128 shares. It is recommended that users create only the required number of shares for each media server. InfiniGuard systems can support concurrent NFS and CIFS shares, and can support Fibre Channel VTLs concurrently with those NFS and CIFS shares.

When using NAS shares on InfiniGuard systems, Infinidat recommends creating at least one share for each Spectrum Protect server to use. Spectrum Protect servers should not share NAS shares during normal backup operations. Root access to an NFS share is not allowed, and the access rights will be changed to nfsnobody as a security precaution. This does not impact the access to the share from Spectrum Protect.

Network Share Access Control Considerations

In Windows Active Directory environments, InfiniGuard CIFS shares act as targets for Spectrum Protect. Shares are not intended as primary storage or drag-and-drop storage for other Windows users. Infinidat recommends that you create a new account and workgroup, as opposed to joining the domain, to limit access and prevent accidental file deletion by other users. We recommend that you DO NOT reconfigure or delete NAS shares while data is being written. There is no mechanism to detect the I/O and provide a warning to the application or administrator.

Network Considerations

Some network considerations include:

  • Use a dedicated network for backup data, or use QoS features that guarantee network bandwidth. Another option would be to use virtual networks (VLANs) to segregate backup from production network traffic.
  • Configure network interface cards (NICs) in the server and clients, and set routers to full duplex.
  • Cabling: 
    • Use only CAT5e or CAT6 cables (1Gb/s rated cables). 
    • Use only OM3 or OM4 (Aqua) Fibre Optic cables (10Gb/s rated FC).
  • If you are using a DNS server, verify that the DNS server configuration settings are correct and don’t conflict, by using nslookup on the host name, as well as the IP address.
  • It is also a good idea to add the HOSTNAME and IP Address to the host file.
  • Use multiple InfiniGuard ports when connecting to the network. The more InfiniGuard Ports used, the better the performance capability will be across the ports.
  • For redundancy, connect at least two InfiniGuard ports to an Ethernet switch.
  • Leverage the InfiniGuard’s ability to set up multiple networks. The InfiniGuard network configuration allows for integration into nearly any networked environment.
  • Set each switch port used by the InfiniGuard to auto-negotiate/auto-sensing. The InfiniGuard network interface cards are preset to auto/auto and cannot be changed.

Spectrum Protect NAS Settings and Tuning Considerations

Infinidat recommends creating one share for each backup server, when possible. With the InfiniGuard NAS attached, there are several advantages to not sharing the NAS B2D shares between backup hosts. The InfiniGuard Series can simultaneously support up to 128 shares configured as CIFS and/or NFS shares, allowing concurrent backup jobs to occur to their own shares. This results in faster and more reliable backups. 

For Spectrum Protect, field experience has shown that NFS shares perform better than CIFS shares. 

NAS shares created on the InfiniGuard Series should be hidden from network browsing by using the Hide this share from network browsing option.

When using an InfiniGuard as NAS for a backup-to-disk target, consider the following when you create a backup-to-disk folder: 

  • Set the maximum size for backup-to-disk files to an appropriate size. If you create small but numerous files, performance may be slow, since the computer must still process each file. However, if you create large files, file system limitations can cause memory allocation problems or network issues. These issues can be a problem if you store files across a network.
  • Specify fewer backup sets in a backup-to-disk file, to allow Spectrum Protect to reclaim disk space faster. Fewer backup sets may allow the overwrite protection period to expire sooner. 
  • Enable the Allocate the maximum size for backup-to-disk files option, to reduce disk fragmentation. To ensure that backup data fills each backup-to-disk file to capacity, increase the append period of the media set that you associate with the backup-to-disk files. The backup data's overwrite protection period may also increase, because the overwrite protection period starts at the end of the last append job. 
  • Backup performance may be affected when you enable the Allocate the maximum size for backup-to-disk files option. To find what works best for your environment, enable this option for a job. Then, compare the performance with a job that does not allocate the maximum size for backup-to-disk files. Experiment with the options for buffered reads and buffered writes. Enabling these options may increase backup performance.

Additional Best Practice Considerations


Several operational considerations are common to both access methods (VTL and NAS). See the Common Operational Considerations for Spectrum Protect section below for more information on Deduplication, Encryption, Compression, Backup Streams and Replication.

Common Operational Considerations for Spectrum Protect

Data Deduplication Considerations

Deduplication results are negatively impacted by compression, encryption, software deduplication, and multiplexing. These functions all change the data stream in a way that obscures patterns in the data content. They will reduce the performance and deduplication from any downstream appliance, including InfiniGuard systems. To obtain effective deduplication rates on the InfiniGuard, you should NOT encrypt, deduplicate, compress, or multiplex your backup data before sending it to an InfiniGuard appliance. 

Multiplexing was intended to aggregate multiple streams from slow data sources to meet or exceed the minimum transfer rate required by physical tape drives. This provided more efficient use of a limited number of expensive physical tape drives. Since the virtual tape drives in InfiniGuard systems are not susceptible to performance losses from slow data transfer rates, and the number of virtual tape drives can easily be increased in quantity with no cost penalty, there is no reason to use multiplexing with an InfiniGuard. 

Good Candidates for Data Deduplication 

Data deduplication can work well with VMware, large databases (note exceptions below), PowerPoint presentations, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle (note exceptions below), Exchange databases, and source code repositories.

Not So Good Candidates for Data Deduplication 

Data deduplication does not work well with in-line compressed data, SQL with LiteSpeed (in-line compression), Oracle with multi-channel RMAN (in-line multiplex), and compressed video, audio, and JPG images. These data types will not get good FIRST PASS deduplication, but deduplication is not compression. The value of deduplication builds over time with repetition. If there are a large number of files in these formats that don’t change, and they get backed up every week as part of a full backup, they will achieve excellent deduplication rates. 

Replication Considerations

For first-time replication setups, it is important to manually replicate the name space once the target system is configured and is online. This facilitates the first replication following the first backup to that share/partition. 

Keep in mind that:

  • The replication is only available to NAS shares with deduplication enabled. 
  • The InfiniGuard supports user-selectable 128-bit or 256-bit AES encryption for replication.
  • Data is only encrypted while in transit between the replication source and replication target. 
  • Data is decrypted upon arrival at the replication target. 
  • Encryption may affect replication performance. You should disable encryption if your WAN is already secured. 

Oversubscription of Space on the InfiniGuard

Deduplication will reduce the amount of space used on the physical system. However, Infinidat recommends that you monitor for Low Space conditions on the InfiniGuard and free up virtual media and disk targets before reaching this threshold.  See "Considerations for the Handling of Expired Media within Spectrum Protect"

The Disk Usage overview on the Home page of the InfiniGuard Management GUI displays the following information about disk usage on the system (Note: Values are displayed as an amount, and as a percentage of the total capacity in the system.):

Disk Capacity - The total usable disk capacity of the InfiniGuard.

Available Disk Space - The disk space available for data storage (free space).

I/O Write Low Threshold state (Yellow) - Free disk space is equal to or less than 500GB + [10GB * (Total system capacity in TB)]

Stop Write state (Red) - Free disk space is equal to or less than 250GB.

Stop I/O state (Red) - Free disk space is equal to or less than 10GB.

For optimal system performance, Infinidat recommends keeping the amount of Available Disk Space (free space) at 20% or more.


When disk capacity is low, target replication to the system is paused. In addition, space reclamation is automatically started to free up disk space.


Appendix A: Spectrum Protect Common Tasks - Command Line

Starting Spectrum Protect to get to the command Prompt (UNIX)

>cd /usr/tivoli/TSM/server/bin
>./stopserver (if it doesn’t stop shortly, make note of the PID it is trying to stop and type)
>kill -9 (PID)
>./dsmserv (this will start the Spectrum Protect server in command line mode)

Commonly used command-line commands

help /*main help menu */
query log /*show activity log*/
query status /*show general server information*/
query request /*see if server needs a response*/
query session /*show sessions*/
query schedule /*show schedules*/
query association /*show nodes associated with schedules*/
query event * * begindate=-7 enddate=today endtime=now exceptionsonly=yes
/*show missed schedules for last 7 days*/
query node /*show client accounts*/
query admin /*show administrative accounts*/
query occupancy /*show client file space information*/
query db /*show database statistics*/
query log /*show recovery log statistics*/
query vol /*show disk volumes*/
query libvol /*show volumes in a tape library*/
query dbvol /*show database volumes*/
query logvol /*show recovery log volumes*/
disable events nteventlog error /*don’t log general errors*/
enable events nteventlog anr2578 /*log missed schedules to nt event log*/
query enabled nteventlog /*showevents that will be logged to nt event log*/
query library /*show library definitions*/
query drive /*show drive definitions*/
query devclass /*show device classes*/
query mount /*show mounted devices*/
query process /*show active processes*/
query spacetrigger db /*show settings for extending the database*/ query spacetrigger log /*show settings for extending the log*/

Configure the Library with Spectrum Protect

Run the following commands:

CLI %> define library <libName> libtype=scsi relabelscratch=yes

The RELABELSCRATCH parameter is supported in TSM 5.5.1 and higher for the DEFINE and UPDATE library commands (for Virtual Tape Libraries). Use this to blank media that is being recycled. This will free up the space being used by the cartridge.

CLI %> define path <serverName> <libName> srctype=server desttype=library autodetect=yes device=lbx.x.x.x
CLI %> define drive <libName> <driveName>
CLI %> define path <serverName> <driveName> srctype=server desttype=drive library=<libName> Autodetect=yes device=mtx.x.x.x
CLI %>define devclass lto devtype=lto library=<libName> mountlimit=x (number of drives) estcapacity=400G

Add the parameter DRIVEENCRYPTION=OFF for LTO-4 drives. Default is “ALLOW”.

CLI %>define stgpool tapepool lto pooltype=primary access=readwrite maxsize=nolimit maxscratch=50 reusedelay=1
CLI %>update stgpool backuppool highmig=0 lowmig=0 nextstgpool=tapepool

Register Client (Host) to Spectrum Protect Server

CLI %>register node <clientName> <password>
domain=standard archdelete=yes
backdelete=yes maxnummp=x
  • For the password, use the host root password
  • For maxnummp, use the number of drives

Label Multiple Media via Spectrum Protect

Check-in media via the Spectrum Protect.

CLI %> label libvolume <libName> search=yes checkin=scratch overwrite=yes labelsource=barcode
"reply messageID"

Inventory Library via Spectrum Protect

CLI %> audit library
<libName> checklabel=barcode

Format / label a single media

CLI %> label
libvolume <libName> <tapeName> overwrite=yes "reply messageID"

Format / label multiple media

CLI %> label libvolume libName overwrite=yes labelsource=barcode search=yes
volrange=<tapeName1>,<tapeNameX>

Quick Erase Media

CLI %> delete volume <tapeName> discarddata=yes (deleted tape
is returned to scratch pool)

Back Up the Database

This step is a prerequisite for a local backup.

CLI %>backup db
devclass=lto type=full scratch=yes wait=no

Local Backup

  1. Configure the files to be written to tape as soon as each is written to the diskpool. 

    CLI %> update stgpool diskpool highmig=0 lowmig=0
  2. Edit /usr/tivoli/TSM/client/ba/bin/dsm.opt.smp as follows:
    1. Remove the asterisk character (*) from the front of servername
    2. Overwrite words to the right with the TSM Server Name
    3. Save the file as dsm.opt
  3. Edit /usr/tivoli/TSM/client/ba/bin/dsm.sys.smp as follows:
    1. Change server_a to the same name used in the above step
    2. Overwrite node.domain.company.COM with the name of your server (for example: svtaix2.adic.com)
    3. Save the file as dsm.sys
  4. Start the client Backup GUI: 

    >/usr/tivoli/TSM/client/ba/bin/dsmj

Set up a scheduled backup

Run the following sequence of commands:

CLI %> define schedule standard <schedule name> type=client action=selective objects=’/<directory path>/*’
options=’-subdir=yes’ duration=1 durunits=hours period=2 perunits=hours
CLI %> define association standard <schedule name> <client name> From OS prompt
>CD /usr/tivoli/TSM/client/ba/bin <ENTER>
>./dsmc schedule <ENTER>, <ENTER> on default user ID, type root (TSM Client) password <ENTER>

Media Clone/Media-to-Media Copy

Remove tapes from I/E station.

CLI %> move data <tapeName>

Extend Database and Recovery Log Files

CLI %> define dbvolume db2.dsm formatsize=30 (30 MB)
CLI %> q db (look for Maximum Extension amount)
CLI %> extend db <Maximum Extension amount>
CLI %> define logvolume log2.dsm formatsize=20 (20 MB)
CLI %> q log (look for Maximum Extension amount)
CLI %> extend log <Maximum Extension amount>

Removing a Library to Replace It with a Different One

  1. To list the available libraries, run: 

    CLI %> Q volume
  2. For each listed tape, run: 

    CLI %> Delete volume <volser> discarddata=yes
  3. Run: 

    CLI %> Delete volhistory todate=today totime=now type=all
  4. Get a list of the library tapes that are known to Spectrum Protect: 

    CLI %> Q libvolume
  5. Note that on the following commands, there is no spaces in the input of volrange: 

    CLI %> Checkout libvolume <library name> volrange=<first volser,last volser> checklabel=no remove=no
  6. For each of the drives, run: 

    CLI %> Delete path <server name> <drive name> srctype=server desttype=drive library=<library name>
    CLI %> Delete drive <library name> <drive name>
  7. Run: 

    CLI %> Delete path <server name> <library name> srctype=server desttype=library
  8. Run: 

    CLI %> Delete library <library name>
  9. Once you have defined your new library and path, give the following command: 

    CLI %> Update devclass lto library=<library name>


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